Diwali 2021: What the holiday . This year, celebrations began on Saturday, with the "main Diwali " falling today, Monday October 24, which marks the . Some Muslims joined the Hindu community in celebrating Diwali in the Mughal era. People illuminate their homes, temples and offices with diyas, candles and lanterns. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. [135] Vaishnava families recite Hindu legends of the victory of good over evil and the return of hope after despair on the Diwali night, where the main characters may include Rama, Krishna, Vamana or one of the avatars of Vishnu, the divine husband of Lakshmi. Diwali is celebrated in the Hindu month of Kartik. The Prime Minister Jawaharlal . The Jain Diwali celebrated in many parts of India has similar practices to the Hindu Diwali, such as the lighting of lamps and the offering of prayers to Lakshmi. Cookies collect information about your preferences and your device and are used to make the site work as you expect it to, to understand how you interact with the site, and to show advertisements that are targeted to your interests. [116] On this day, many Hindus clean their homes and business premises. Diwali lasts five days, and the main celebrations are held on the third day of the festival. This is the day when Hindu, Jain and Sikh temples and homes are aglow with lights, thereby making it the "festival of lights". Cook, Sharell. Traditionally, Marathi Hindus and South Indian Hindus receive an oil massage from the elders in the family on the day and then take a ritual bath, all before sunrise. The first day of Diwali is called Dhanvantari Triodasi or Dhanwantari Triodasi also called Dhan Theras. The festival usually falls between mid-October and mid-November. What is Diwali? Diwali Dates Detailed Information Some diyas may also be set adrift on streams and river and the evening is marked with fireworks. Sharell Cook lives in Mumbai full-time and writes about India travel. Diwali is for mere mortals; Dev Deepawali is the festival of the gods. Subhadra welcomes him with a tilaka on his forehead. [139], The celebrations and rituals of the Jains and the Sikhs are similar to those of the Hindus where social and community bonds are renewed. Diwali is generally a time for visiting, exchanging gifts, wearing new clothes, feasting, feeding the poor, and setting off fireworks (though such displays have been restricted to limit noise and other environmental pollution). Diwali is the Festival of Lights, observed by Indian communities around the world. The Diwali festival dates back to ancient times in India. iStockphoto.com/SoumenNath What Do People Do? The festival isn't celebrated in Kerala though. [124][128] Shops either do not open or close early on this day allowing employees to enjoy family time. The common celebratory practices are known as the festival of light, however there are minor differences from state to state in India. This is believed to please Yama (Yamraj), the god of death, and to ward off untimely death. In his 11th-century memoir on India, the Persian traveler and historian Al Biruni wrote of Deepavali being celebrated by Hindus on the day of the New Moon in the month of Kartika. It's observed on the 15th day of Kartik, the holiest month in the Hindu lunar calendar. In some parts of India, the day after Lakshmi Puja is marked with the Govardhan Puja and Balipratipada (Padwa). It's celebrated across five days with the day of Diwali observed on the new moon or Amavasya. Each day has the following rituals and significance:[43], Dhanteras, derived from Dhan meaning wealth and teras meaning thirteenth, marks the thirteenth day of the dark fortnight of Ashwin or Kartik and the beginning of Diwali in most parts of India. "When Is Diwali (Deepavali)? Some Hindu communities mark the last day as Bhai Dooj or the regional equivalent, which is dedicated to the bond between sister and brother,[111] while other Hindu and Sikh craftsmen communities mark this day as Vishwakarma Puja and observe it by performing maintenance in their work spaces and offering prayers. [98][99] This traditional belief of the origin of Diwali, and its significance to Jains, is reflected in their historic artworks such as paintings. In 2021, Diwali is on November 4. Diwali or Deepawali, known as the "festival of lights," is usually celebrated in October or November, and is on October 24 this year. The final day is Bhai Dooj and similarly, celebrates the bonds between brothers and sisters. This is believed to please Yama, the god of death, and to ward off untimely death. [116] The term Dhan for this day also alludes to the Ayurvedic icon Dhanvantari, the god of health and healing, who is believed to have emerged from the "churning of cosmic ocean" on the same day as Lakshmi. [159][160] According to Rao, Diwali is one of the major festivals where rural Indians spend a significant portion of their annual income, and is a means for them to renew their relationships and social networks. It symbolizes the victory of good over evil and an even deeper meaning is to drive away our inner darkness with light. Diwali's date is determined by the India calendar and changes every year, ranging from October to November. When people are exposed to these pollutant particles, they may suffer from eye, nose, and throat-related problems. The course of the five days includes cleaning . The names and events of the individual days of Diwali are as follows: The first day, known as Dhanteras, is dedicated to cleaning homes and purchasing small items of gold. Naraka Chaturdashi, also known as Chhoti Diwali, is the second day of festivities coinciding with the fourteenth day of the dark fortnight of Ashwin or Kartik. Diaspora, Identity, and Festivalization, The Festival of 'Deepavali' as Marks of Tradition and Identity for Working, Married Hindu Women: Continuity and Change, Celebrations as Social Investments: Festival Expenditures, Unit Price Variation, and Social Status in Rural India, M.A., English Literature, University of North Bengal. Kartik overlaps with October and November. Make sure you check the dates online if you plan on visiting India during Diwali. For the Jain community, the festival commemorates the enlightenment and liberation (moksha) of Mahavira, the most recent of the Jain Tirthankaras, from the cycle of life and death (samsara). They also spend time with family and friends to enjoy good food and fireworks. The devotion and dedication of Hanuman pleased Rama so much that he blessed Hanuman to be worshipped before him. The reason Diwali's celebration date is different each year is that each of the Hindu calendarsthere are severalis lunisolar, meaning they take into effect both the movements of the sun and the moon. [49] (According to Indologist Constance Jones, this night ends the lunar month of Ashwin and starts the month of Kartik[50] but see this note[c] and Amanta and Purnima systems.) It's observed on the 15th day of the month. In other regions, parents invite a newly married daughter, or son, together with their spouses to a festive meal and give them gifts. [122] A mythological interpretation of this festive day is the destruction of the asura (demon) Narakasura by Krishna, a victory that frees 16,000 imprisoned princesses kidnapped by Narakasura. Hence Deepavali has been . The festival of Diwali commemorates the return of Lord Rama to his kingdom after defeating Ravana. [148] On this day the womenfolk of the family gather, perform a puja with prayers for the well being of their brothers, then return to a ritual of feeding their brothers with their hands and receiving gifts. [43][55], Emperor Harsha refers to Deepavali, in the 7th-century Sanskrit play Nagananda, as Dpapratipadotsava (dpa = light, pratipad = first day, utsava = festival), where lamps were lit and newly engaged brides and grooms received gifts. This means that Diwali kicks off on Oct. 22 and is celebrated through Oct. 26,. [4] Diwali is celebrated by Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, and Newar Buddhists,[29] although for each faith it marks different historical events and stories, but nonetheless the festival represents the same symbolic victory of light over darkness, knowledge over ignorance, and good over evil. After firing, the fine dust particles get settled on the surrounding surfaces which are packed with chemicals like copper, zinc, sodium, lead, magnesium, cadmium and pollutants like oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Diwali is also celebrated to mark the return of Rama to Ayodhya after defeating the demon-king Ravana and completing his fourteen years of exile. Many participate in other socio-political events as a symbol of support for diversity and inclusiveness. [95] According to the Jain tradition, this practice of lighting lamps first began on the day of Mahavira's nirvana in 527 BCE,[j] when 18 kings who had gathered for Mahavira's final teachings issued a proclamation that lamps be lit in remembrance of the "great light, Mahavira". (2021, September 4). [103][104][k], Diwali is not a festival for most Buddhists, with the exception of the Newar people of Nepal who revere various deities in Vajrayana Buddhism and celebrate Diwali by offering prayers to Lakshmi. [19] Diwali is also marked with fireworks and the decoration of floors with rangoli designs, and other parts of the house with jhalars. At such events a variety of music, dance and arts performances, food, crafts, and cultural celebrations are featured. On the eve of his first visit to India as President of the United States, Obama released an official statement sharing his best wishes with "those celebrating Diwali". [83][84][85] Hindus from the Braj region in northern India, parts of Assam, as well as southern Tamil and Telugu communities view Diwali as the day the god Krishna overcame and destroyed the evil demon king Narakasura, in yet another symbolic victory of knowledge and good over ignorance and evil. Some 200,000 New Yorkers celebrate Diwali each year, per state Assemblymember Jenifer Rajkumar . The festival falls sometime between October and November. Bhalla said the dates change each year based on the Hindu lunar calendar, but typically happens in October and November. Large government-sponsored festivals are held in London, Sydney, Toronto, and Edinburgh, and they are often a showcase for Indian culture, music, dance, fashion, food, crafts, and fireworks. [166] Stock markets like NSE and BSE in India are typically closed during Diwali, with the exception of a Diwali Muhurat trading session for an hour in the evening to coincide with the beginning of the new year. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors. Each day has a different name and rituals. Diwali falls in either October or November each year, depending on the cycle of the moon. Every occasion represents two main things: 1. Scholars contest the 527 BCE date and consider Mahavira's biographical details as uncertain. The celebration of Diwali aligns with the new moon, so it's celebrated on a different day each year. [143], The last day of the festival, the second day of the bright fortnight of Kartik, is called Bhai Duj (literally "brother's day"[146]), Bhau Beej, Bhai Tilak or Bhai Phonta. This year's festival begins on Oct. 22. Diwali, the festival of lights, is a religious observance commemorated by Hindus, Sikhs, Jains and some Buddhists around the world. The festival climax is on the third day and is called the main Diwali. [68] In his paper on The Lunar Year of the Hindus, Jones, then based in Bengal, noted four of the five days of Diwali in the autumn months of Aswina-Cartica [sic] as the following: Bhutachaturdasi Yamaterpanam (2nd day), Lacshmipuja dipanwita (the day of Diwali), Dyuta pratipat Belipuja (4th day), and Bhratri dwitiya (5th day). The duration will be 1 hour 56 minutes. Diwali is also an important festival in Jainism. The Lacshmipuja dipanwita, remarked Jones, was a "great festival at night, in honour of Lakshmi, with illuminations on trees and houses".[68][f]. Patrice J. Williams is a travel and style content creator, fact-checker and author of the thrift shopping book. This year, it begins in the first week of November from 2nd-6th. A variety of sweets are prepared using flour, semolina, rice, chickpea flour, dry fruit pieces powders or paste, milk solids (mawa or khoya) and clarified butter (ghee). Jean Mead, How and why Do Hindus Celebrate Divali?, John Bowker, ed., Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Religions (Oxford UP, 2000), See Festivals, Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, "2022 Diwali Puja Calendar, Deepavali Puja Calendar for New Delhi, NCT, India", "Diwali 2020 Date in India: When is Diwali in 2020? Ubtan is applied by the women which is made up of special gram flour mixed with herbs for cleansing and beautifying themselves. Diwali symbolises the spiritual "victory of light over darkness, good over evil, and knowledge over ignorance". [52] In Nepal, it is also a multiday festival, although the days and rituals are named differently, with the climax being called the Tihar festival by Hindus and Swanti festival by Buddhists. It's believed that on this day the Goddess Lakshmi, often associated with wealth, abundance and good fortune, visits people's homes and fulfils their desires. Lasting over five days, the holiday is celebrated by millions of Hindus, Jains, and Sikhs worldwide. Guru Amar Das, the third Guru of the Sikhs, built a well in Goindwal with eighty-four steps and invited Sikhs to bathe in its sacred waters on Baisakhi and Diwali as a form of community bonding. [24], Originally a Hindu festival, Diwali is now also celebrated by other faiths. Spread joy. The Hindu lunar calendar has two parts: dark (Krishna paksha, or "waning moon" in Sanskrit) and light (hukla paksha, or "waxing moon"), and the new moon (amavasya) always occurs in between the parts, typically on the 15th. The Prayer Hymn (Aarti) for the Hindu Diwali Celebration, Hindu Calendar: Days, Months, Years and Epochs, The Real Reason for the Hindu Raksha Bandhan Celebration, History and Significance of Diwali, the Festival of Lights, Reasons to Celebrate Diwali the Festival of Lights, Calendar of Hindu Festivals, Fasts, and Religious Events 20202025, The History of Vasant Panchami, the Birth of Hindu Goddess Saraswati, A Guide to the 6 Seasons of the Hindu Calendar, A Guide to Lohri, The Hindu Winter Bonfire Festival, Evaluating Population Exposure to Environmental Pollutants During Deepavali Fireworks Displays Using Air Quality Measurements of the Safar Network, Whose Diwali Is It? A solar calendar (like the Gregorian one) has an average of 365.24 days. A 2017 estimate states 50,000 tons (100million pounds) of fireworks are exploded annually in India over the Diwali festival. Learn Religions, Sep. 4, 2021, learnreligions.com/when-is-diwali-1770209. [112] [o] The looms, tools of trade, machines and workplaces are cleaned and prayers offered to these livelihood means. [151], During the season of Diwali, numerous rural townships and villages host melas,[152] or fairs, where local producers and artisans trade produce and goods. [129] At dusk, family members gather for the Lakshmi Pujan,[129] although prayers will also be offered to other deities, such as Ganesha, Saraswati, Rama, Lakshmana, Sita, Hanuman, or Kubera. A lunar half-month is 15 days. The Hindu calendar is based on both the sun and moon (while the Gregorian calendar is only based on the sun). However, in South India, the festival is observed as the defeat of Narakasura. For example, the Singaporean government, in association with the Hindu Endowment Board of Singapore, organises many cultural events during Diwali every year. [181][182], The use of firecrackers on Diwali increases the concentration of dust and pollutants in the air. [109] Textual evidence suggests that Bengali Hindus worshipped Lakshmi before the colonial era, and that the Kali puja is a more recent phenomenon. Furthermore, when specifying the masa, one of two traditions are applicable, viz. [123], This day is commonly celebrated as Diwali in Tamil Nadu, Goa, and Karnataka. The dates for Diwali change each year, as they are based on the Hindu lunisolar calendar. It also marks the beginning of the Hindu New Year. The main festival day falls on a different date each autumn, timed to the Hindu lunar calendar, but it . Dhan-trayodashi or Dhan teras: Dhan means "wealth" and Trayodashi means "thirteenth day." Thus, as the name . "When Is Diwali (Deepavali)? Diwali is celebrated on the 15th day of Kartik which is considered as the most serene months according to the Hindu Lunar calendar. 10,000 on this Diwali: ASSOCHAM survey, "Festival of Lights: All You Need to Know About Diwali", "DNA Explainer: What is Diwali Muhurat Trading and why it is best time to invest in stocks", "NextFins Celebrates Diwali With the Launch of INDF", "Prince Charles, Camilla celebrate Diwali in UK", "Their Royal Highnesses The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall Celebrate Diwali at BAPS Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, London", "Brown celebrates Diwali at 10, Downing Street, in a 'historic' first", "Pakistan parliament adopts resolution for Holi, Diwali, Easter holidays", "Muslim-majority Pakistan set to declare Holi, Diwali and Easter as public holidays", "Muslims join Hindus in Diwali celebrations in Pakistan's Peshawar", "Burns in the developing world and burn disasters", "Air Pollution: Delhi's air quality enters 'Red Zone' ahead of Diwali", "Diwali may bring 'severe' air pollution to Delhi, despite fireworks ban", "Firecrackers Not Only Pollute The Environment But Also Carry Cancer Causing Chemicals", "Diyas symbolise Diwali, crackers cause pollution: Delhi environment minister", The Ancient Origins of Diwali, Indias Biggest Holiday, Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sembilan's Birthday, Anniversary of Installation of the Sultan of Terengganu, Declaration of Malacca City as Historical City, Declaration of George Town as World Heritage Site, Annunciation of the Virgin Mary / Annunciation of the Theotokos, Days of Remembrance of the Victims of the Holocaust, Emancipation Day in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Fast in Honor of the Holy Mother of Lord Jesus, Feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Nativity of Mary / Nativity of the Theotokos, Italian-American Heritage and Culture Month, Virgin IslandsPuerto Rico Friendship Day, Presentation of the Theotokos to the Temple, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Diwali&oldid=1139371132, Articles containing Assamese-language text, Articles containing Bengali-language text, Articles containing Gujarati-language text, Articles containing Kannada-language text, Articles containing Konkani (individual language)-language text, Articles containing Maithili-language text, Articles containing Malayalam-language text, Articles containing Marathi-language text, Articles containing Punjabi-language text, Articles containing Nepali (macrolanguage)-language text, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles using infobox templates with no data rows, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0, Ashvin Krishna Trayodashi, Ashvin Krishna Chaturdashi, Ashvin Amavasya, Kartik Shukla Pratipada, Kartik Shukla Dwitiya, 11 (Kali Chaudas/Hanuman Puja/Chhoti Diwali), This page was last edited on 14 February 2023, at 20:01. In Sri Lanka and. Each day has a special significance as follows. [137][138] According to Pintchman, who quotes Raghavan, this ritual may also be linked to the tradition in some communities of paying respect to ancestors. Diwali usually falls in October or November. Homes are decorated, and floors inside and out are covered with rangoli, consisting of elaborate designs made of colouredrice, sand, or flower petals. [50] It is mentioned in mentioned in early Sanskrit texts, such as the Padma Purana and the Skanda Purana, both of which were completed in the second half of the 1st millennium CE. Das, Subhamoy. Updates? [64][65][d][e], Publications from the British colonial era also made mention of Diwali, such as the note on Hindu festivals published in 1799 by Sir William Jones, a philologist known for his early observations on Sanskrit and Indo-European languages. The festival typically lasts for four to five days and coincides with the new moon on the Hindu lunisolar calendar,. It's been 11 years since we celebrated Diwali at our family homes back in India, but that will never stop us from feeling at home, celebrating traditions, and embracing it. One of the earliest reports on this variation was by Wilson in 1847. The exact dates change each year because it follows the lunar calendar, but it is typically celebrated in October or November over a 5-day span: On day. Diwali is a five-day festival begins with Dhanteras and ends with Bhai Dooj. Diwali celebrations can last for about five days. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. [86], Mythical tales shared on Diwali vary widely depending on region and even within Hindu tradition,[88] yet all share a common focus on righteousness, self-inquiry and the importance of knowledge,[89][90] which, according to Lindsey Harlan, an Indologist and scholar of Religious Studies, is the path to overcoming the "darkness of ignorance".